| Saturday, December 31, 2005
| CELEBRATING THE FIRST CENTENNIAL OF THE FILIPINO DIASPORA
|The arrival of the 15 Sakadas (sugar cane harvesters) in Hawaii on December 20,1906 mqrked the beginning of the massive migration of workers and families from the Philippines to foreign lands -- the phenomenom we know as the Filipino Diaspora.
THE PIONEERING FIFTEEN
The first group of Filipino who made the journey to Hawaii 100 years ago paved the way for other Kababayans (countrymen) who were in search of the "American Dreams".
Throughout 2006, the centennnial of the first large Filipino living in the U.S. today have 15 Ilocanos to thank for opening the doors of immigration and paving the way for a brighter future for them.
A story released by the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. provides this background: "In 1906 the first significant numbers of Filipino immigrants arrived in Hawaii to work on the islands' sugar plantation. Until 1935, many more came as migrant laborers to West Coast farms and Alaskan canneries. After World War II, approximately 7,000 Filipino soldiers received U.S. citizenship and, in 1945, the War Brides Act permitted the way for Filipino professionals to enter the United States, many of them in the medical field. This latest wave of immigration brought major changes in gender and class in the Filipino American community, which now number 2.36 million. Filipino-Americans constiture the second largest Asian Pacific American group overall, second to Chinese Americans, according to the 2000 cencus."
The Smithsonian will honor the centennial by sponsoring public programs and a photographic exhibit entitled, "A CENTURY OF CHALENGES AND CHANGE: THE FILIPINO AMERICAN STORY" Providing a historical overview of Filipinos in America, the programs and exhibit will be mounted in such major Filipino enclaves as Honolulu, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, Los Angeles and Las Vegas. Many Filipino communities will be commemorating this centennial with their own special events.
Ground zero for the celebration is the state of Hawaii. This was where the first 15 Ilocanos were brought to work for the Hawaiina Sugarcane Planters Association (HSPA) on Decemebr 20, 1006.
Among the 15 were Simplicio Gironella and his sons Mariano, Vicente, Francisco and Antonio. Only 18 uear old Francisco spoke Englisj, so he was the interpreter of the group. Also in the group were two sets of brothers -- Mauricio and Celestino Cortez and Cecelio and Prudencio Sagun. The others were Martin de Jesus, Mariano Bello, Filomeno Rebolido, Apolonio Ramos, Emiliano Dasulla dn Julian Galmen.
They set sail for Honolulu on the SS Doric accompanied by Albert F. Judd, who was sent to the Philippines to recruit the new labor for the plantations.
The Filipino laborers became known as Sakadas. The initial wave of farm workers brought approximately 24,400 men, 3,066 women and 2,330 children to Hawaii between the years of 1906 and 1919. In the Philippines, the contracts between the workers and the HSPA were translated into Ilocano. The contracts specified theat they would receive:
* Free transportation for himself and his family;
* Three years employment for him and his wife and children;
* Free housing ; and
* Free water, fuel, medicine and health care.
The Filipinos were to be paid at the rate fo $16.00 a month for the first year. This was for working 10 hours a day, 26 days each month. This rate of pay was lower than all the other workers in Hawaii who were getting at least $18.00 a day. However, in acutality, the Filipino rate was only $14.00 a month because $2.00 a month were taken from their paycheck and accumulated for the three years their contract. At the end of the three year contract, the accumulated money would be given back to them if they chose to stay, or could be used to buy a ticket back to the Philippines or the mainland. If they did'nt complete their three years contract, the money would be forfeited.
Unknown to the Filipinos, the HSPA recruited them to intimidate the Japanese workers who were tired of cheap wages, legal restrictions and racism. They were unwitting scabs, relegated to the worse jobs, terrible living conditions and the lower pay. To keep the status quo, the recruiters purposely recruited the most illiterate of the peasants in the Philippines.
Today, over 15 percent of the Hawaiian populations is of Filipino Heritage. Among the most notable descendants are former governor Ben Cayetano, former Miss America 2001 Angela Perez Baraquio, Benny Agbayani, formerly of the New York Mets baseball teams, actress Tia Carrere and Jasmine Trias of "American Idol" fame.
From the time of the first 15 Ilocanos arrived in Hawaii to the present, Filipino certainly have had their share of challenges changes. As ther first Filipino Overseas Contract Workers (OCW), they started a trend that continues today. For the last hundred years, Filipinos have continued to define who they are in this country through perseverance and survival, tolerance and activism, spirituality and enterpreneurships, while providing for their families on both sides of the Pacific. These characteristics have helped Filipinos not only survived, but also thrive wherever they live in America.
(Source: FILIPINAS MAG By: Mel Orpilla, the National Trustee of the Filipino American National Historical Society)
FROM A HANDFUL TO 8 MILLION PLUS.
The numbers vary, depending on the source, but it is generally acknowledged that there are over 8 million people of Filipino descent working overseas or living in adopted countries as naturalized citizens or permanent residents. Such is the extent of the Filipino Diaspora.
While natives of Las Islas Filipinas crossed the Pacific Ocean to the New World as early as 1565 and while it is speculated that the first person to circumnavigate the globe, Enrique de Mallaca, was from the Visayas, the first massive deployment of Filipino overseas workers only began in December 1906, setting a patterns that would be riplicated over the years in Asia, the Middle East. Australia, Europe and even in Africa.
In the U.S., the 2000 Census palced the official Filipino population -- defined as singel race and multiracial -- 2.36 million. The unoffical numbers, however, is believed to be well over 3 million, owing to misclassification (Filipino surnames are predominatly Hispanic and Filipino-Chinese are often tabbed as Chinese)and those with uncertain immigration status.
Based on the latest data, Canada has the second largest number of people of Filipino descent living overseas, next to the U.S., at over 315,000.
In a paper delivered at the 3rd Global Filipino Networking Covnetion in Cebu/Philippines in January 2005, Filipino British Gene Alcantara, an executive of the British Council, placed the number of Filipinos in the United Kingdom at 150,000 to 200,000 , 60 percent living in London and 70 to 80 percent women.
Another country with a large concentration of Filipino women is Hongkong where it is estimated that 90 percent of the more than 150,000 are domestic helpers, of which 94 percent are female.
Italy is reported to have 56,209 legal immigrants. This suiggest an eve larger number if those with uncertain status are counted.
Figures from Australia place the number of Filipinos there at 103,900. The number in Japan, based on various sources ranges from 93,000 to 300,000.
Another set of figures, provided by the Philippine government and migrant workers organizations zeroes in only on Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs), as a group distinct from immigrants and naturalized citizens. The number is 1.06 million OFWs as of 2004. 49.3 percent were male and 50.7 percent female, with majority of the womens between 25 to 29 hears old and the men mainly 45 years and older.
Of the 1.06 million OFWs, 820,000 work in Asia, 108,000 ae in Europe and 95,900 are in North and South America. Among those in Asia, the largest number (29.3 Percent) are in Saudi Arabia, followed by Hongkong with 12.4 percent, Japan with 11.8 percent and Taiwan with 8.2 percent. Saudi Arabia is the favorite destination of the male OFWs (172,000) while Hongkong is for females (96,000). About 33.4 percent or 355,000 are laborers and unskilled workers. Trades and related workers come next at 15.4 percent (164,000) followed by plant and machine operators and assemblers at 15.1 percent (161,000), agricultural, forestry,fishery and related laborers.In contrast, according to the 2000 U.S. Census, 11 percent of Filipinos ins the U.S. are in technical, sales, administratvbe and servie occupations, crafts and repairs and 27 percent are operators, fabricators and laborers.
Indeed, over the past 100 years, Filipinos in America hae made considerable headway, compared with those in other foreign lands. But a lot still remains to be achieved. For the overseas Filipino it has been a long and arduous journey with no end in sight.
(By: GBM/Filipinas Mag)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 1:07 AM
| Friday, December 30, 2005
| WANTED: ONE SMART, KIND, SANE FEMALE FOR LONELY SON OF A BEATLE
|It sounds like a joke, but believe me this is true -- Sean Lennon has turned to the New York Post's Page Six gossip column to help him find a new girlfriend. Talk about a high profile dating service! Lennon sounds pretty desperate, but then he's have to be to turn to a gossip column to prime the proverbial dating pump, would'nt he?
"I'm completely alone and I'm completely miserable", the 30 year old told Page Six.
But the musician son of the late Beatle John Lennon and Yoko Ono sounds pretty specific about the kind of woman he's looking for --- and brains rank high. Lennon, 30, says his ideal girl "must have an IQ above 130" and he also wants a woman who is truthful and has "a kind heart".
Some of his other requirments do seem a touch odd, to say the least. "Any girl who is interested (in contacting him) must be born female" which I guess implies he's worried transexuals may pitch him for a date.
Age is clearly not a biggie. Lennon would consider anyone between 18 and 45, but none with "any clinical, psychological disorders".
While Lennon knows "beauty on the inside is more important", he is interested in a woman who is "clearly beautiful" .... no deformities, third legs, fifth nipples"--- whatever that means!!
(Source:CHICTRIB/GLARE CELEBRITY NEWS & GOSSIP by: Bill Zwecker/email bzwecker @suntimes.com)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 4:36 AM
| MAN UNAPOLOGETIC AFTER KILLING HIS DAUGHTERS
|Pakistan shocked but similar 'honor killings' are commom.
MULTAN, Pakistan -- Nazir Ahmed appears calm and unrepentant as he recounts how he slit the throats of his three young daughters and their 25 year old stepsister to salvage his family's "honor" -- a crime that shocked Pakistan.
The 40 year old laborer, speaking in police detention as he was being shifted to prison, confessed to just one regret -- that he did'nt murder the stepsister's alleged lover, too.
Hundreds of girls and women are murdered by male relatives each year in this conservative Islamic nation, and rights group said Wednesday such "honor killings" will only stop when authorities get serious about punishing perpetrators.
The independent Human Rights Commission of Pakistan said that in more than half of such cases that make it to court, most end with cash setllements paid by relatives to the victims families, although under a law passed last year, the minimum penalty is 10 years, the maximum death by hanging.
Ahmed's killing spree -- witnessed by his wife, Rehmat Bibi, as she cradeld their 3 month old baby son -- happened Friday night at their home in eastern Punjab province.
260 such killings this year.
It is the latest of more than 260 such honor killings documented by the rights commission during the first 11 months of 2005.
Bibi recounted how she was awakened by a shriek as Ahmed put his hand on the mouth of his step daughter Muqadas and cut her throat with a machete. Bibi looked helplessly on from the corner of the room as he then killed the three girls -- Bano, 8; Sumaira, 7; and Humaira, 4 -- pausing between the slayings to brnadish the bloody knife at his wife, warning her not to intervene or raise alarm.
"I was shivering with fear, I did not know how to save my daughters", Bibi, sobbing, said by phone from the village. "I begged my husband to spare my daughters but he said, " If you make a noise, I will kill you".
The next morning, Ahmed was arrested.
Speaking in the back of a police pickup truck late Tuesday as he was shifted to a prison in the city of Multan, Ahmed showed no contrition. Appearing disheveled but composed, he said he killed Muqadas because she had committed adultery, and his daguthers because he did'nt want them to do the same when they grew up.
"I thought the younger girls would do what their eldest sister had done, so they should be eliminated", he said, his hands cuffed his face unshaven. "We are poor people, and we have nothing else to protect but our honor".
Women 'treated as property'.
Despite Ahmed's contention that Muqadas has committed adultery -- a claim made by her husband -- the rights commission reported that according to local people, Musqadas had fled her husband because he had abused her and forced he to work in a brick making factory.
Police have said they donot know the identiry or whereabouts of Muqadas alleged lover.
Muqadas was Bibi's daughter by first marriage to Ahmed's brother, who dies 14 years ago. Ahmed married his brother's widow, as is customary under Islamic tradition.
"Women are treated as property and those committing crimes against them donot get punished". said the rights commission's director, Kamla Hyat. "the steps taken by our government have made no real difference."
(Source: Associated Press/ Khalid Tanveer)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 4:11 AM
| Tuesday, December 27, 2005
| YOUR TUMMY OR YOUR LIFE
|A short guide to making better, smarter, more empowered eating choices.
** RESPECT your body. Understand the role your food choices play in your health. Ask yourself; Where are poor food choices showing up in my health, energy or appearance?
** START SEEING FOOD for what it is. Most chain restaurant and packaged foods are the same six or seven cheap ingredients combined different ways. Most of those ingredients are not ones you want to be eating in any quantity. Notice how food is marked and advertised. What are the tactics the company is using to get you to buy it? What emotional or social benefit are they implying?
** DON'T TRY TO ELIMINATE all the things you love. But do reduce the frequency and/or portion size of the ones you know aren't good for you. Also look for healthier options, and try new things now and then!
** LEARN TO COOK for yourself and family, and do it together -- often. It is possible to whip together a fine, fresh dinner in under 30 minutes. You can do breakfast or lunch in five!
** CHOOSE FOODS less for what they don't have in them, and more for what they do have to offer your body, both in terms of quality and effectiveness. If the food isn't based on healthy, nutritious ingredients, even if it does'nt have anything really "bad", you can choose better.
** GO FOR BASIC GOODNESS . The closer to the original form of a food, the more it has to offer. Taste, satisfaction and nutrients all peak in fresh fruit, for example. Frozen fruit, a bit less so, and canned the least. Choose fresh, locally grown food whenever it is ripe or available.
** DON'T ASSUME that fresh and organiz are necessarily more expensive. That's not always the case. Also, if you think you can't afford it, figure out how much you spend now on eating out, sodas, processed foods, etc. It's a matter of priority. If we stuck to fresh foods and eliminate the sweet beverages, snacks and prepared convenience foods, most of us could afford the best produce available and have money left over.
** LOOK AT long term cost savings of eathing healthy (reduced health problems and medical costs, less money spent on weight reduction, weight camuflage, etc.) As with waste management and energy production cost questions, people often forget to calculate the total costs associated with theri food choices.
** BE LABEL SMART. Ingredients are listed in teh order used. Sugar assumes several disguises, such as fructose, sucrose and other "ose" endings. Be especially wary of high fructose corn syrup. Also beware of refined fats. Trans fats are not currently listed as such, but anything that contains hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oil will contain trans fats in similar proportion.
** BE CAUTIOUS of foods that proudly trumpet that they are "fat free" or "sugar free". If they don't have good stuff in them, it does'nt really matter. Also watch out for "made with whole graion!" marketing messages. The product may have just a little whole wheat mixed in with mostly refined.
** RESIST ALL-YOU-CAN-EAT offers and avoid restaurants that trade on "Bootmless" bread baskets. Also be wary of food products or menus that use words like "giant", "Colossal" and "extreme" to flaunt their wares. Real quality is likely not a priority here. Keep in mind that most U.S. restaurants are simply not very good at vegetables, fruits or whole grains. They are good at industriallyproduced proteins, fats and refined grains. Does'nt your body deserve better!.
** GET PEEVED. If you are in a restaurant and can't find anything to eat, tell the management you're disappointed and find a new restaurant. Some goes with finding organics and healthy items at you local store.
** WORK THE MENU. Recombine ingredients at will. Ask to have the pasta sauce put over grated vegetables. Have your sandwich fillings rolled up in a large lettuce leaf or tossed with salad greens. Have your steak with mashed cauliflower instead of mashed potatoes.
** CUT YOURSELF OFF. If you have trouble with portion control, don't take an open bag of snacks with you while you do something midnless. If you're served a large plate at a restaurant, immediately ask to have half of the portion put in a doggy bag for another meal.
** PORTION CONTROL, for health first, then indulge your desires. If you eat your entire meal and still want and don't initiate "gotta have more" cravings the way many processed, sweetened and artifically flavored products do.
** FEED YOURSELF for health first, then indulge your desires. If you eat your entire meal and still want the bread, have a slice. But if you start with the bread beforehand, you may fill up on it.
** CARRY A STASH of healthy snacks and "convenience foods" woth you. Get a good, easy to carry cooler and some portable, reusable foor storage containers each day -- before you leave the house. Look into getting a tiny fridge for you cube or office so you don't even have to make a foray into the vending room.
** INOCULATE YOUR KIDS against marketing messages and gimmicks designed to get them to beg for unhealthy food. Start teaching them now about how nutrition affectrs their health and happiness.
for more suggestions and resources that can help you start eating more safely, see the online version of this article at lifetimefitness.com/magazaine.
(Source: EXPERIENCE LIFE MAG)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 5:09 AM
| TRACKS GIVE ARCHEOLOGISTS FOOT IN DOOR TO 18,000 B.C.
|Discovery of aboriginal runner's dash and children's wanderings, pressed in ancient Australian mud, are called 'the nearest we've got to prehistoric film'.
CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA -- Children meandered around their parents anckles. A man likely a hunter, dashed through the mud. Somebody dragged a dead animal along the shores of the lake.
Now the footprints they left some 20.000 years ago are giving a fresh perspective on the lives of Australian aborogines.
Since an aboriginal park ranger stumbled upon the first grint in 2003 in Mungo National Park, 800 miles west of Sydney, archeologists helped by local aborigines have excavated 457 other prints from the region's shifting sands.
"This is the nearest we've got to prehistoric film where you can see someone's heel slip in the mud as they're running fast," Steve Webb, a professor of Australian studies at Queensland state's Bond University, said thursday.
"It brings that element of life that other archeological remains can't", added Webb, who leads a team that is tracing the ancient prints.
The New South Wales state government, which has helped fund the research, revealed the footprints existence Thursday ahead of a report on the find to be published early next year in the Journal of Human Evolution.
When the tracks were laid between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago at the height of the last Ice Age in swampland near the shores of Willandra Lakes, the habitat was a lush oasis in Australia's arid interior. The lake system dried up 14,000 years ago.
Webb and his team believe one set of prints was left by a 6 foor 6 hunter who spinted at almost 19 mph across silty clay toward an unknown prey, mud squeezing between his bare toes.
Some tracks reveal unknown game being dragges across mud. Emu and kangaroo tracks also were found in the area.
The rpints were laid in wet clay containing calcium carboante that hardened like concrete when it dried. They eventually were covered by a protective clay crust and sand before being exposed by wind erosion at the remote national park.
"We know they were hunting something, probably water birds. We've got men running very fast", Webb said.
"They're wonderful prints so lielike. We've hardly scratched the surface."
(Source: Associated Press by: Rod McGuirk)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 4:42 AM
| Monday, December 26, 2005
| PAPA'S GOT A BRAND NEW BAG
|Pope offers fashion hints, wears Prada, Gucci.
VATICAN CITY.-- Whether it's Prada and Gucci, or fancy ecclesiastical tailoring, Pope Benedict XVI is his own man when it comes to dressing.
Just days before Christmas, Benedict showed up at his weekly public audience in St. Peter's square wearing a full trimmed stocking cap that could have passed for a Santa Claus hat.
Earlier this month, he made another fashion statement -- donning a red velvet cape trimmed in ermine for the traditional papal visit to the statue of the Madonna near the Spanish Steps, that marks the beginning of Rome's Christmas season.
Coming after gossip about wearing Gucci sunglasses and bright red Prada loafers, the vintage styles have turned Benedict into something of a fashion celebrity.
"Those red shoes have made quite an impression", said Vatican historian Alberto Mellini.
The 78 year old Benedict lacks John Paul II's natural charisma, and the trappings of Vatican splendor may be a way to compensate.
Those who know Joseph Ratzinger from his years as head of the Vatican's doctrinal office desmiss any notion of vanity in the his dressing habits. "He wouldnt' know Gucci from Smoochi", said Marjorie Weeke, a former official at the Vatican's social communications office.
Another fashion issue in the news recently: Papal Hemlines.
During Benedict's first public appearances, his cassock was very above the ankle, revealing white socks and bright red footwear. The hem was soon lowered a few inches.
The Gucci shades that Benedict was spotted wearing in an open car ride last spring also brought talk.
In his old neighborhood outside the Vatican, opticians Gladio and Walter Colantoni have been fitting Ratzinger with glasses for almost two decades. They say the designer sunglasses were probably a gift.
"The thing he was most interested in is practicality", said Gladio, adding that the old fashioned glasses used by Benedict for reading during public appearances speak for themselves.
(Source: Associated Press)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 3:58 AM
| AIRLINE TRAVELER..... TO PACK OR NOT TO PACK?
|Changes to the Transportation Security Adminsitration's (TSA) list of prohibited items that can be carried aboard planes too effect.
** Cattle prods
** Knives, excluding round bladed, butter and plastic.
** Meat cleavers
** Scissors, metal with pointed tips and 4-inch plus blades.
** Baseball bats
** Ice axe/picks
** Pool cues
** Ski poles
** Box cutters
** Golf Clubs
** Pellet or BB guns
** Spray paints
** Cigar cutters
** Eyelash curlers
** Walking canes
** Scissors wth 4-inch or less edge.
** Tools (screwdrivers,wrenches and pliers) 7-inches or less.
** Knitting and crochet needles
** Disposable razors
** Cuticle cutters
***Check also tsa.gov***
(Source: Associated Press)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 3:45 AM
| Friday, December 23, 2005
| BOOK OF DAYS
---------- SUMMER -------------
------- JUNE ------
1)**** Ovid claims June was named after Juno, the goddess of love and marriage, but the month was apparently named after the Juniores, the minor house of the Roman legislature.
2)**** Day of St. Erasmus, patron saint of sailors; also known as St. Elmos' Day.
4)*** The custom in Europe is to plant a tree upon the birth of a baby; an apple tree for a boy, a pear tree for a girl.
6)*** The first public museum, the Ashmolean, opens in Oxford, England, in 1683. Stuffed animals on exhibit includes a dodo bird and patrons are charged addording to how long they stay in the museum.
7)*** A great battle between two swarms of bees in Cumberland, 1827. Some bee beliefs: Bees will not thrive if your quarrell over them. An unclaimed swarm settling on your property is bad luch. Bees should be informed when a death occurs and be invited to the funeral; crepe should hung on the hive.
10)** Time-observance Day in Japan, when people are supposed to be especially conscious of the importance of being punctual.
12)** Baseball invented by Abner Doubleday in 1839.
14)** In 1777, the Continental Congress adopts the American flag.
15)** The rising of the Nile, originally believed to have its source in Paradise, usually takes place on this day. If it was late, a beautiful young girl was thrown in the waters to appease the gods. To Egyptians, Nile water once was to ordinary water what champagne is to wine; sacred bulls were not given it lest they grow too fat. When the Pasha of Egypt visited England in teh 19th century, he brought his personal supply of NIle water for drinking.
*** Benjamin Franklin flies a kite in a storm in 1752 to prove that lightning is attracted to metal.
17)** Postage stamps are introduced in Belgium, 1849.
*** An old Danish custom required the actuala tying of a knot at a wedding, with two pieces of string or ribbon. This tradition spread to England and other parts of Europe and is the origin of the expression "to tie the knot".
18)** In the Australian bush, weddings used to be occasions for "Tin kettling", young men would make a racket with kerosene tins and fencing wire until the bride and groom invited them in for supper.
*** Old American wedding customs included the shivaree, a mock serenade with a raucous racket of pots and pans, cowbells, and shotgun fire outside the newlyweds window.
*** Romans considered June the most auspicious month for weddings, especially at a full moon or at conjunction of the sun and moon.
*** The custom of giving guests pieces of wedding cake to take home from an ancient Roman practice of breaking a cake over the bride's head for luck. People picked up the pieces for their own good luck.
*** If a medieval bridaya party came across a monk, priest, hare, dog, cat,lizard or serpent on the way to the church, it was an inauspicious sign for the marriage.
*** Harming a robin is extremely bad luck. If you take their eggs, your legs will break. If you are holding one, when it dies, your hand will always shake.
19)** Alexander L. Hamehameha IV, king of the Hawaiian islands, marries Emma Rooke, the daughter of an English physician, in Honolulu, 1856.
20)** A Command Performance by Buffalo Bill for Queen Victoria and her guests during her Golden Jubilee, in 1887. Four kings board the Deadwood coach, driven by Buffalo Bill.
21)** Wedding rings go on the fourth finger because the ancients believed it contained a nerve going straight to the heart.
June 21- 22 is the time of the summer solstice, the LOngest Day.
*** The sun enters the fourth zidiac sign of the year, Cancer.
23)** The biggest lighting holiday oof Europe is celebrated on the eve of the longest day in the year. The bonfires orginally represented the sun. Mid-summer're Eve bonfires are called St. John's Fires in honor of St. John's Day which follows. The Irish believe that on Midsummer's Eve one's soul wanders from the body to the eventual place of death.
24)** Midsummer's Day, also St. John's the Baptist's Day. There is an old belief that the sun spins in the sky on this day in Cornwall, a Midsummer's Day bonfire is crowned with a witch's broom and hat and set on a hill to warn witches to stay away for a year. To break witche's spells, forty kinds of herbs are thrown into the fire.
25)** Orange blossoms have been worn at weddings for a very long time. The orange tree, which stays green all year, symbolized eternal love.
*** It was a custom i the United States until at least 1783 for a group of young men, usually rejected suitors, to steak the bride after a wedding ceremony and return her to the groom only after a ransom of a supper for all had been paid.
*** In the Scottish custom of "Creeling", a newly married man had to run with a basket of stones on his back until his wafe caught up with him and gave him a kiss before the amused onlookers. The duration of the run depended upon the wife's physical condition, shyness, and sense of sport.
27)** The custom of carrying a bride over the threshold is probably left over from the days when men got their brides by capturing them.
*** It was a medieval custom for friends to accompany the bridal pair when they bathed on their wedding night. A Regensburg ordinance of 1320 procalimed that no more than 24 males and 8 females were permitted to attend on such occasions.
*** The cuckoo clock may have its origin in the medieval belief that the cuckoo -- revered as the herald of spring -- had supernatural powers that cnabled it to tell how long one would live, in how many years one would marry, and so on, by uttering its call the appropriate number of times.
The ancient applied the term cuckoo to a wife's paramount; this referred to the cuckoo's habit of laying its eggs in other bird's nests to be hatched.
28)** Bridemaids are usually dressed alike. The ancient custom required the bride and several attendants to dress alike to confuse the evil spirits which had come to spoil the wedding.
*** The term "Best Man" is derived from old Scandinavian marriage customs. It was considered beneath a warrior's dignity to court a lady, so he would kidnap a bride on her way to her wedding. To guad against this, the groom sent his "Best Man" as an escort.
*** The bride should nor wear pearls at her wedding.Pearls symbolizes tears.
29)** Day pf St. Peter, patron saint of Fishermen. The fishing fleet at Gloucester, Massachusetts, where the fishermen are of Italian and Portuguese descent, is blessed on St. Peter's Day.
*** To celeberate the coronation of Queen Victoria, in 1838, the entire issue of the London Newspaper, The Sun is printed in gold ink.
30)** Most early American remedies for baby ailments seem to be made of snails. One recipe calls for snails, earthworms, rosemary, bear's foot, agrimony, dock, barberries, wood sorrel, and rue.
*** A 971 1/2 carat diamond is found in 1893 in the Orange Freestate. The finder is rewarded with 500 pounds plus a horse with bridle and saddle.
-------- July ---------
July was named in 44 B.C. for Julius Caesar. Before that the month was called Quintilius -- the "Fifth Month". March being the first month.
1)** A women's swimming club is founded in Munich in 1903. One newspaper warned, presumably on behalf of the male population: "We are not yet so unnerved that we can be caught by such sensual bait".
*** G.W. Wallis of Sydney, Australia, leanred the Aborigine Sidestroke from an aborigine at Woolooware Bay. In 1885 he took it to England where H. Gardiner used it to become the British swimming champion.
***Dominion Day in Canada. The provinces were united in 1867.
*** The first United States postage stamps are issued, 1847.
2)** July is berry month.
3)** Daisies were originally known as "day's eyes".
04)** American Independence Day. The day was traditionally miserable day of the year for the horses, tormented by all the noise and by boys who threw firecrackers at them.
*** The old Midsummer's Ever before the calendar changed.
*** The day St. Martin's remians were transferred to the cathedral of Tours. If it rains on this day, it is believed throughout Europe that there will rain for the next twenty days.
*** Ths Statue of Liberty is presented to the United States by France in 1884.
5)** The first professional lion tamer was a man called "Manchester Jack". At his first performance, in 1835, he sdat on the back of a very old lion and pried open the ancient beast's jaws.
6)** Tennis originated in France in the middle ages. It was played indoors. Players hit a ball, made of leather stuffed with dogs hair, with either a racquet or their bare hands.
*** The first photogrpah of lightning is taken in Bohemia by Robert Haensel, 1883.
*** On this date in 1865, the Matterhorn is first climbed.
7)** Known as "the eyar without a summer" in the Northeastern United States, in 1816 there was snow and a killing frost in every month and people had to wear heavy overcoast in July. People moved away for fear of starvation. There is no certain explanation for this phenomenon, but according to Professor Henry Stommerl the probable cause was the eruption of the Indonesian volcano Mount Tamboara. It is theorized that all the ash in the air obscured the sun's rays. The summer was extremely cold in Europe also.
8)** The Liberty Bell carcks, 1835.
09)** In 1969 on this day a rhinocerous was born in Ireland for the first time.
*** Before the 19th century "July" was promunced to rhyme with "Truly".
10)** Perhaps the first shooting competition with firearm took place in South Germany in 1427. The prize for the best marksman was fifteen pairs of pants.
13)** Bicycling through the country is a popular summer sports. The bicyle was invented by Kirkpatrick MacMilan, a Scottish blackmsith, in 1839. The first bicyle had a wooden frame with a carved horse's head on the front.
16)** The Muslim Era begins, 622.
*** The game marbles is descended from a Roman game played with nuts. In early America, marbles were made of baked clay.
19)** In the Northern Hemishphere, July is considered the warmest month of the year. The Romans supposed that various phenomena associated with the heat could be attributed to the rising and setting of Sirius -- the Dog Star -- in conjunction with the sun. Thus the period between early July and late August is known as the "dog days" even though the astronomical phenomenon with which it is associated occurs at various times of the year in different latitudes.
22)** This is the day in 1284 when a musician dressed in apatched, multicolored coat -- thus known as the Pied Piper -- appeared in the town of Hamel, in Brunswick, struck his bargain, and exacted his famous revenge when the burghers reneged.
23)** King Ludwig I of Bavaria so loved to look at pretty faces that he complained bitterly of the fashion of wearing veils that prevailed at the time. This was well known by the women of the region. who would quickly raise their veils when they say him coming.
24)** The sun enters the fifth zodiac sing of the year, Leo.
26)** The first ocean cruise offered for pleasure, travelling begins at Southampton, England. Wulliam Makepeace Thackeray was a passenger on this four month tour of the Mediterranean in 1844.
27)** The Festival of the Seven Sleepers. Seven young men, who did not wish to worship a statue set up by th Emperor Decius, fled to the caverns of Mount Coelius. Decius thereupon had all the caverns walled up. In 479, more than 200 years later, the seven were discoverd by someone digging foundations for a stable. They were all alive, and believed they had slept only one night.
29)** Olsok Eve Festival in Norway. Bonfires are lit to commemorate St. Olaf, the king who brought Christianity to Norway in the 11th century.
30)** In 1760, three of London's city gates are sold as scrap, amrking the end of London as a walled city. Newgate, the last one, was burned down twenty years later by a mob.
1)*** In the old Roman Calendar, this , the sixth month, was named Sextilis. Because of the auspicious events that occurred during it. Augusuts chpse to confer his name upon this month instead of his birth month.
*** Known in Britain and in early colonial times as Lammas Day. This was the end of the farming season in Britain, where the harvest starts earlier than it does in the United States. It was the farmers thansgiving time, and it was the American Thanksgiving time until 1863.
American families would take the first loaf of bread from the new grain to church to be blessed by the minister. The word "Lammas" was originally "Loaf Mass".
*** Institution in 1469 of the French order of knighthood -- the Order of St. Michael. The thirty six knights could be degraded only for heresy, treason or cowardice.
*** New London Bridge opened by King William IV and Queen Adelaide in 1831. Old London Bridge had been built in 1209 and carried a nearly continous row of four story buildings, interrupted only by an open area used for jousting in medieval times.
*** Swiss Confederation Day. Commemorates creation of the Swiss confederation in 1291 for defense agains the Austrians.
2)*** London, 1865, Publication of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll; onky forty eight copies were sold.
*** The first street letter boxes in the United States are installed in 1858 in Boston and New York.
5)*** A feast in Rome, that includes a shower of blossoms, commemorates a snow shower on this day in the 3rd century that outlined the shape of a basilica. The Day of Our Lady of the Snowa.
12)** The quagga in Amsterdam's ZXoo Artis dies in 1883. This was the last quagtga, a zebra like animal in the world.
*** The Saxons name for August was Weed Monath, which means "weed-month"
*** Before dandelions became weeds, they were cultivated on purpose. People ate the leaves as a vegetables and ground the roots for a coffee like drink.
14)** Bourbob, a corn whiskey, is an American invention. Legend has it that the idea of flavoring whiskey by storing it in smoked wood was discovered by accident when an oaken whiskey barrel was strcuk by lightning.
15)** Assumption Day. Amajor holiday in Roman Catholic countries and the beginning of sumer holidays for many people in Europe.
*** Tivoli, the pleasure gardens of Copenhagen, opens, 1843.
16)** The Alaskan gold rush starts on this date in 1896.
*** The U.S. Weather Bureau has three sets of people's name for hurricanes originating in each year. Every four years they start over again with the first set of names, except in the Atlantic where the cycle is ten years. The names of major hurricane are not used again for at least ten years. Now they both used male and female names.
In the 19th century, people bought "Snake balls" pieces of sotne or bone that were supposed to draw out the poison when placed on a snakebite.
18)** American platn patent #1 is granted in q931 to Henry F. Bosenberg of New Brunswick, New Jersey, for New Dawn, a rose that blooms repeatedly instead of only once.
19)** In Germancy it is said: men who hate cats will never get a wife. This derives from the old Germanic folk belief that the wildcat was the favorite animal of Freya, the goddess of love and marriage.
20)** Until the 17th century, the country people of Europe usually made weekly visits to the bathouses in the nearby towns. With the advent of flax-growing and the use of washable linen underwear, the frequency of these visits diminished drastically.
21)** Veal, mutton, beef, or venison may be kept for nine or ten days perfectly sweet and good, in the heat of sumer, by lightly covering the same with bran, and hanging it in a high and windy room; or a wire safe, so as the wind may have a passage through, is reommended ot be palced in such a room, to keep away the flies.
23)** An old almanac list the following as fertilizers: bones, woolen rags, fish, leather, brine, lime, mud from the swamps and ponds, straw, ferns, rotten wood, shells and ashes.
24)** On the fourth Sunday on August dairymen of Vissoie, Switzerland, return from the Alpine partures, where they have spent the summer with their cattle, and presen their priest with the first cheese of the season.
*** The sun enters the sixth zodiac sign of the year, VIRGO.
25)** British Summer Holiday.
26)** The typewriter is patented in 1843.
27)** In 1890 Miss Zee Gayton set out to walk from San Francisco to New York, which she did in 226 days.
28)** The first motor tour was made in Germany in 1888 by Bertha Benz, who took her children to visit relatives. Her husband was the inventor of the car she was driving. Drinkers at an inn where they stopped in the Black Forest quarreled about whether the automobile was powered by clockwork or by a supernatural source.
30)** The Day of St. Fiarce. Horse drawn cabs in France are called Fiacres to this day because of a taxi business started in Paris at the Hotel St. Fiacre.
-------- SEPTEMBER --------
1)*** Emma Nutt, the first female telephone operator, begins work in Boston in 1878.
*** This is the beginning of the oyster seasn. At Colchester in England, a toast is traditionally drunk to the Queen in a thimbleful of gin and a "pinch of gingerbread" is served.
*** Oysters should be eaten only in months that have the letter "R" in their names, which excludes the warm months. Septembner is the first oyster month after the "no-R" summer months.
In the 19th century, people could ship each other barrels of oysters as presents, even if they lived as far as a month's journey away. Oysters were packed in barrels of salt water, which was changed every day, and cornmeal was scattered through the barrel.
2)*** Belgium's most famous bell, Klokke Roelant, is consecrated in 1660 in Ghent. It weighs 13, 310 pounds (6,050 kg)
*** Yhe Great Fire of London, 1666.
3)*** The founding of Los Angeles, 1781.
5)*** Born this day in 1638, the future Louis XIV of France -- with two lower front teeth.
7)*** Elizabeth I born, 1533.
8)*** The first Monday in September is American Labor Day.
14)** Daredevil Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls in 1860 walking on stilts along a rope. Tound Edward, Prince of Wales, watches.
16)** In 1620 the Mayflower sails from Plymouth, England.
*** The American Pie is perhaps the most ridicules of all dishes. It has, however, great popularity and undoubted merits. Were the crust, especially the under one, always right, it would remove the most salient point of criticism. The tart pies, made with puffpaste, are a atemptation to the most fastitdious taste. The mince pie, probably the most indigestible of all, is the one universally accepted as a treat, and seldom refused by the scoffer. Pies have their seasons, like other good things, the apple pie being the only one served all year round. The berries and fruits, each one in their time, make most acceptable and delicions pies and tarts, while rhubarb introduces the spring, and pumpkin announces the autumn. In this day canned and dried fruits the seasin needs not to be so strictly observed, nut fresh fruits will always be preferable to preserved ones.
19)** At Versailles, 1783, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette watch the ascent of the Montgolfier brothers first hot air balloon. It carried a sheep, a duck and a rooster, the first "manned" flight.
*** The first appearance of Mickey Mouse cartoon, Steamboat Willie, in 1928.
*** The sun enters the seventh zodiac sign of the year, LIBRA.
21)** The first issue of a daily newspaper in America, The Pennsylvania Evenign Post and Daily Advertiser Philadelphia, 1793.
*** If geese appear early in the South, a hard winter is coming in the North.
*** The full moon in September narest the autumn equinox is known as the harvest moon. Because of its position in relation to Earth, it seems to be very big and to rise very slowly.
*** Ceres, the Roman grain goddess, was worshipped at this time of the year. She was known in ancient Britain variously as :
The Harvest Queen
The Kern Baby
The Corn Baby
The Kern Doll
The Ivy Girl
(Source: Book fo Days by: Kay & Marshall Lee)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 2:25 PM
| GREETINGS .....
SUNG TAN CHUK HA
SAWADEE PEE MAI
CHUNG MUNG GIANG SIHN
GUN TSO SUN TAN
GUNG HAN SUN
KUNG HIS HSIN NIEN BING CHU SHEN TAN
|posted by infraternam meam @ 3:31 AM
| Thursday, December 22, 2005
| GORILLAS GO THROUGH MENOPAUSE, TOO
|Study might help zoos improve how tahey care for animals.
Jenny, Shamba, Timbo, Beta and Elaine are son gorillas, but they have something in common with million of women: They have undergone menopause.
A study of gorillas at 17 North American zoos, led by Brookfield Zoo, is the first to document gorilla menopause, researchers not involved in the study said.
The findings may help zoos improve how they care for aging female gorillas and change the way evolutionary biologists think aboutmenopause in humans.
"Do they have hot flases? Do they get grouchy> We haven't been able to measure those thing syet, but give us time", said study co-author Sue Margolis, a former Brookfield Zoo researcher and now curator of primates at the Lincoln Park Zoo.
Many biologists think menopause evolved because it gave human grandmothers more time to help care for grandchildren, said Steve Austad, a researcher at teh University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio who was not involved in the study. The new findings argue against that hypothesis because female gorillas in the wild migrate away from their family groups and don't hang around to care for the grandkids.
Instead of an evolutionary adaptation, menopause could result from humans -- and captive gorillas -- living longer, Austad said.
The oldest gorilla in capttivity is thought to be 51 year old Jenny at the Dallas Zoo. She was one of the 30 gorillas in the study and among the 23 percent of the older gorillas found to have undergone menopause when researchers measured their hormones.
(Source: Associated Press by: Carla K. Jonhson)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 2:59 PM
| Wednesday, December 21, 2005
|Marriage Part I
Typical macho man married typical goodlooking lady and after the wedding, he laid down the following rules:
"I'll be home when I want, if I want and at what time I want and I don't expect any hassle from you. I expect a great dinner to be on the table unless I tell you that I won't be home for dinner. I'll go hunting, fishing, boozing and card palaying when I want with my old buddies and don't you give me a hard time about it. Those are my rules. Any comments?"
His new bride said,
"No, that's fine with me. Just understannd that there will be sex here at seven o'clock every night...whether you're here or not."
Marriage Part II
Husband and wife had a bitter quarrel on the day of their 40th wedding anniversary.
The husband yells, "When you die, I'm getting you a headstone that reads, HERE LIES MY WIFE - COLD AS EVER!"
"Yeah?" she replies. "When you die, I'm getting you a headstone that reads, "HERE LIES MY HUSBAND -- STIFF AT LAST".
Marriage Part III
Husband, a doctor and his wife are having a fight at the breakfast table. Husband gets up in a rage and says, "And you are no good in bed either", and storms out of the house.
After some time he realizes he was nasty and decides to make amends and rings her up. She comes to the phone after many rings, and the irritated husband says,
"What took you so long to answer the phone?"
She says, "I was in bed".
"In bed this early, doing what?"
"Getting a second opinion!"
Marriage Part IV
A man has six children and is very proud of his achievement. He is so proud of himself, that he starts calling his wife, "Mother of Six" in spite of her objections.
One night, they go to a party. The man decides that it is time to go home and wants to find out if his wife is ready to leave as well. He shouts at the top of his voice,
"Shall we go home Mother of Six?"
His wife, irritated by the husband's lack of discretion shouts right back,
"Any time you're ready, Father of Four".
The Silent Treatment
A man and his wife were having some problems at home and were giving each other the silent treatment. Suddenly the man realized that the next day he would need his wife to wake him at 5:00 AM for an early business flight. Not wanting to be the first to break the silence and lose, he wrote on apiece of paper,
"Please wake me at 5:00 AM."
He left the note where he knew she would find it. The next morning the man woke up, only to discover that it was 9:00 AM and he had missed his flight.
Furious, he was about to go and see why his wife had'nt wakened when he noticed a piece of paper by the bed.
The paper said: "It is 5:00 AM. Wake Up."
God may have created man before woman, but there is always a rough draft before the masterpiece.
(Source: Sent by an office mate)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 9:53 AM
| Tuesday, December 20, 2005
| BRAZIL OH BRAZIL!!!
|Transvestite bathrooms may become law in Brazilian city.
RIO DE JANEIRO,Brazil -
For most, it's choice of the men's room or the women's. A Brazilian city is trying to give an option to those who don't fit easily into either category.
A bill passed by the Nova Iguacu city council this week would require nightclubs, shopping malls, movie theatres and large restaurants to provide a third type of bathroom for transvestites.
Mayor Lindberg Farias will decide whether to make it a law.
"A lot of lawmakers did'nt want to deal with this issue, but it's a serious problem in society", said Councilman Carlos Eduardo Moreira.
Unwanted in either washroom.
Morena, a 32 year old policeman on leave from the force, said he got the idea when dozens of transvestites showed up for a samba show.
"It was a real problem. The women did'nt feel comfortable having them in the ladies room, and themen did'nt want them in their bathroom either," said Moreira, the father of two children. "I'm not doing this for my own benefit".
He said the "alternative bathrooms", could also be used by men or women who did'nt mind sharing space with transvestites.
Moreira said there are nearly 28,000 transvestites in Nova Iguacu, a poor city of about 800,000 on theoutskirts of Rio De Janeiro.
Gays split on issue
Moreira denied that the cost of building a third bathroom would be a big problem for restaurant or club owners. "It requires an initial investment, but after that, the establishment will end up making more money because it will have a larger public. And transvestites like to spend". he said.
The issue has divided gay groups, some feared it could segregate gays, while others said it recognized a problem.
"At first we were against the law, but after some discussion we decided we had to support it," said Eugenio Ibiapino dos Santos, a founder of the Pinck Triangle Association.
Brazilians, take good care of your health, as there could soon be a ban on death.
BIRITIBA MIRIM, Brazil --
There's nomore room to bury the dead, they can't be cremated, and laws forbid a new cemetery. So the mayor of this Brazilian farm town has proposed a solution: OUTLAW DEATH.
Mayor Roberto Pereira da Silva's proposal to the town council asks residents to "Take good care of your health in order not to die" and warns that "infractors will be held responsible for their acts."
The bill, which sets nopenalty for passing way, is menat to protest a federal alw that has barred a new or expanded cemetery in Biritiba Mirim, a town of 28,000 people 45 miles east of Sao Paolo.
"Of course the bill is laughable, unconstitutional, and will never be approved", said Gilson Soares de Campos, an aide to the mayor. "BUt can you think of a better marketing strategy ... to persuade the government to mdify the environmental legislation that is barring us from building a new cemetery".
(Source: Associated Press)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:18 PM
| A FOND FAREWELL
|A last goodbye to those we lost in 2005
* Rosa Parks *
Civil rights hero, indicating that her decision to sit in the white section of the bus was an act of defiance.
* Luther Vandross *
R & B artist who contued winnng Grammy eight in all -- even afger a debilitating stroke in 2003.
* Pope John Paul II *
A Protestant onlooker at one of Karol Wojtyla's 104 road trips once cracked, "You got a Pope who knows how to Pope."
* Philip Johnson *
Modernist and later postmodernist architect who championed the glass box skyscraper.
* Peter Jennings *
Award winning ABC anchorman who presented Wordl New Tonight for 20 years.
* William Westmoreland *
General who led U.S. troops in Vietnam and later advocated for their due recognition at home.
* Johnnie Cochran *
Legal supertar whose catchpharse about a bloody glove helped in O.J. Simpson acquitted in 1995.
* Prince Rainer III *
The storybook sovereign who wed Hollywood star Grace Kelly.
* Richard Pryor *
Racy comedian who never shied from topics like drug abuse, race relations and his multiple sclerosis.
* Paul Bellow *
Nobel prize winnign author of Herzog and Humboldt's Gift.
* Hunter Thompson *
Gonzo journalist and author of Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas who shot and killed himself.
* Eugene McCarthy *
War opponent and 1968 presidential candiate.
* Zhao Ziyang *
Chinese leader, urging students in vain to leave Tiananmen square before the 1989 massacre.
* Ibrahim Ferrer *
Cuban singer, on the Buena Vista Social Clubs hit 1997 album.
* William Renquist *
Elegant in prose and unpretentious in manner, led the supreme court for nearly 19 year with a rare combination of efficiency and amiability.
* Simon Wiesentahl *
Holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter who tracked down 1,100 war criminals.
* Johnny Carson *
His charm was unflagging, his manner cool and easy, his jokes precision guided.
|posted by infraternam meam @ 3:14 AM
| THE GIVING TREE....THE TOP 10
|The largest total philanthropic gifts by individuals in 2004.
No.1) Bill and Melinda Gates
The Microsoft chairman's and his wife pledge to the Gates Foundation -- which committed more than US$ 1 billion to global health alone this year -- will increase its endowment to nearly US$32 billion, by far the largest in the world.
No. 2)Susan T. Buffett
US$ 2.55 billion
The wife of Berkshire Hathaway founder left 31,707 shares of company stock largely to her foundation dedicted to college scholarships and medical research.
No. 3) John M. Templeton
US$ 550 million
The former investor pledged the money to his foundation to study the relationship between science, religion and health.
No. 4) Caroline Wiess Law
US$ 450 million
The oil heiress and art collector's bequest -- as well as her many paintings -- went to the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston and two medical schools.
No. 5) George D. Cornell
The former New York banker with ties to IBM left a huge bequest to his alma mater, Rollins College, in Winter Park, Fla. and 61 oganizations.
No. 6) Leo A. and Kay K. Drey
The St. Louis, Mo., businessman and his wife donated Pioneer Forest, 146,000 acres in the Ozarks, to their L-A-D Foundation, which promotes environmentally friendly land management.
No. 7) Pier and Pam Omidyar
The eBay founder and his wife, who created a non profit group to help sick children cope with disease, have also provided seed money for philanthropic groups.
No. 8) Bernard Marcus
The Home Depot co-Founder used his foundation to finance the Gergia Aquarium, which opened in Atlanta in November.
No. 9) Sidney E. Frank
US$ 142 million
The creator of the Grey Goose vodka brand could afford only one year of tuition at Brown University. Now he has given the school millions.
No.10) Michael Bloomberg
New York City's billionaire mayor spread's his media empire wealth among more than 600 groups, supporting the arts, health care and social services.
Generosity's Deep Roots
Wealthy Americans have been creating ways to give away their time and money for generations.
(1795 - 1873)
a railrod investor and merchant, leaves US$7 million to found a unviersity and hospital.
(1828 - 1918)
a banking heiress creates the Russell Sage Foundation, which offers grants to improve living conditions. Her total gift is estiamted at US$ 80 million.
(1835 - 1919)
a Scottish born steel baron, defines charity as a moral imperative and gives away more than US$350 million in his lifetime through the Carnegie Foundation.
John D. Rockefeller
(1839 - 1937)
a founder of Standard Oil and the richest man of his time. His US$ 450 million in contribution to public health through the Rockefeller Foundation sets a precedent for the Gates Foundation.
Madam C.L. Walker
an African-American self made millionaire, supports social and educational institutions witht he profits from her hair care and cosmetic business.
(1863 - 1947)
the automotive pioneer, establish the Ford Foundation in Michigan with US$25,000. Now a nationwide force, it has more than US$11 billion.
John D. (1897 - 1978)and Catherine T. MacArthur (1909 - 1981) start their namesake foundation with the vast wealth from his insurance company, Bankers Life. Today the foundation's assets are estimated at US$ 5 billion.
(Source:TIME MAGAZINE/Person of the Year Issue)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 2:39 AM
| Wednesday, December 14, 2005
| SPRING BOOK OF DAYS
|********** SPRING **********
********** March **********
1)..... In the ancient Roman calendar, this day was the fesat fo the Matronalia, when women held feasts for their slaves.
1)..... Frederic Chopin born, 1810.
..... George Washington's way of curing colds was to eat a toasted ontion before going to bed.
..... On the fist of any month, British schoolchildren believe that before speaking to anyone else you must say "white rabbit" for lunck. Some say "hares and rabbits" or just "rabbits"
3)..... On this month in 1895, Munich begins to give test for bicycle riders. Those who pass receive license plates for their bicycles.
3)..... On this month in the year 1884, a Munich businessman and his wife rode a home made bicyle down the main street. A headline in a leading newspaper protested the next day: "A SCANDELOUS DRIVE" "Without shame, proud as an Amazon, this fine lady let herself be inspected by one and all. Shall propriety de dealth such a blow ith impunity?"
8)..... On this month also, the first woman obtains a pilot's license; in Paris, Baroness Raymonde de Laroche, 1910.
9)..... Napoleon married Josephine on this month in 1796.
13).... Planet Uranus was discovered, 1781.
14).... Johann Strauss born, 1804.
15).... The Ides of March, The assasination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.
..... To avoid clothes freezing on the line, mix one pint of salt with one pint of hot water, and rub this on the line where the clothes are hung.
.....Crumbled mothballs mixed witht eh soil where carrots are planted will discourage the larvae of the carot fly.
17).... Noah is said to have gone into the ark on this day of this month.
..... The day of St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland.
.....St. Gertrude's Day. She was regarded a help againts plagues of mice and rats.
..... In the region of Freising, Germanym, there was a plague of mice in 1233 so terrible that the whole towns were abandoned by populations fleeing the pests.
18).... The first public buses in Europe were run in Paris in 1662, under Louis XIV. Intended for the city's poor, who could not afford to hire carriages, the nuses became a fad among the fashionable, who jammed them for the first months. After that, the poor would have nothing to do with them and the service was discontinued.
..... paper kites were introduced in Europe at the end of 1600s by travellers retruning from China.
19).... This is the day the swallows return to the San Juan Capistrano Mission in California. According to tradition (though not to biologists), the swallows return on exaxctly this date every year, even in leap year.
21).... The sun enters the first zodiac sign of the year. Aries.
.... The day of the vernal equinox, the first day of spring, when the day and night are of equal length.
.... Johann Sebastian Bach born, 1685.
22).... The earliest possible Easter. It happend in 1818 and will not occur again until 2285.
.... Death of Goethe in 1832, aged 83 and hailed as one of Germany's greatest man. His last words were "More light!"
.... Playing cards are first mentioned in writing , Florence, 1377.
24).... Queen Elizabeth I deis on this day in the year 1603, aged 70.
25).... Annunciation Day. Celebrates the Angel Gabriel's announcement to Mary that she would be the mother of Jesus. It is called Waffle Day in Sweden and waffles are eaten on this day.
.... The unpredictable temperature in March often cause colds. A nineteenth centruy remedy for sore throats was t =o put a red stocking around your neck before going to bed.
27).... In Bavarian folk belief, one who eats bratwurst before sunrise will have money and good health all year; he who eats it sober will never suffer from fle bites and rashes.
28).... The first washing machine is patented in the U.S. in 1797.
30).... Palm Sunday.
31).... Eiffel Tower in Paris, competed in 1889.
.... Death of Francis I in 1547, brought on "by immorality". At his funeral, the sermon suggeted he had gone straight to heaven without passing through purgatory; the bishop was rebujed and the sermon was never published.
********** April **********
1)..... April Fool's Day. The origin of April Fool's Day is not clear; it has been traced only to the 18th century in England and the 16th century in France. Remarkably, the Hindus have a similar festival, the Huli, at about this time, which includes prankishly sending off people with messages to nonexistent or absent persons.
..... The 16th century calendar change made the eyar begin on January 1 instead of March 25 in parts of Europe. Pranksters continued making the New Years' calls at the end of March.
..... In most places, the rule is that April Fooling is to end at noon, and anyone who tries to play a joke later in the day is the fool.
..... The Duke of Lorraine and his wife escape from Nantes prison because they attempt it on April Fool's Day. As they were leaving the city disguised as peasants, a woman recognized them and hurried to inform the guard. The soldier however, suspecting an April Fool's joke, cried April Fool! and did nothing.
2)..... Hans Christian Anderson born, 1805.
..... First motion picture theater in the United States opens, in a shop in Los Angeles, 1902.
..... Washington Irving born, 1783.
..... The surgeon Leon Labbe' presents to the French Academie des Sciences a fork he has removed from the stomach of a Paris department store worker (who from then on called the Forkman - L'homme a la fourchette) This was the first such operation in Pais 1876.
..... Yhe Pony Ex[ress starts service, 1886; couriers set off on this day from St. Joseph, Missouri, and San Francisco. The 1,900 mile (3057 km) trip is made in about ten days -- an average of eight miles per hour.
6)..... Easter Sunday. The egg symbol of rebirth at springtime. Gifts of eggs and games involving eggs are universal customs at Easter.
..... In pre-Christian times, Romans held running races at this time of year on egg-shaped trakcs and gave eggs as prizes.
..... First Olympic Games in modern times are held in 1896 in Greece.
8)..... In parts of Britain until very recently a strange custom called "heaving" was practiced on teh Monday and Tuesday following Easter Sunday. On the first day, women would capture men and heave them up in the air, the next day the roles would be reversed. This is said to represent the Resurrection, but is probably left over from a pagan rite to promise the growth of crops.
..... Buddha's birthday is celebrated around this time in Hawaii, Japan and Koread. In Japan, his statue is bathed with hydrangea-leaf tea.
10).... Safety pin is pattented, 1849. The patent was sold later for US$400.
..... Until the last century, jump rope was a town boys' activity. Jump rope games with rhymes and dispalys of skill, as played by girls now, are quite new.
..... It is suggested that April derives from the Latin term aperio-- "I open". It has also been conjectured that the origin of the word was Aphrodite (Aphrilis, Aprilis, April?) because the month was associated with the reproductive powers of nature. Saxon called it Oster monath, perhaps for the prevalent east winds.
15).... Leonardo da Vinci born, 1452.
16).... Charlie Caplin born, 1889.
18).... The first train in Asia, 1853. Great Peninsula Railway, Bombay to Tanna, 22 miles (36 Km).
19).... Queen Christina, who abdicated the Swedish throne in order to gratify her intellectual yearnings, dies this day in 1689.
20).... In 1841, the first detective story was published by Edgar Allan Poe's Murders in the Rue Morgue.
..... In ancient Egypt, all nigjht parties were held to celebrate ten day old babies.
21).... The sun enters the second zodiac sign of the year. Taurus.
..... The founding of Rome in 753 B.C.
..... In ancient Rome, during the festival of the Parilia, fores scented with laurel and rosemary were passed among the sheep and cattle to purify the. Shepherds and animals also lept through bonfires.
22).... The first knwon roller skates are worn by a young Belgian musical intrument maker in 1760. He rolls into a party in London palying the violin, but is unable to stop and crashes into a mirror.
..... In 1903 a German glasscutter built a working grandfather's clock which, with the exception of the spring, was made completely of glass.
23).... William Shakespeare born, 1564.
..... Founding of the Order of the Garter, the oldest order of Knighthood, in 1347.
..... St. George's Day. St. George is noted for slaying a dragon in Libya in the 3rd century. He became the parton saint of England because he appeared as an apprarition in the sky during the Crusaders, frightening the Moslem enemies of the Crusaders.
24).... St. Mark's Eve. In the northern England it is believed that if you keep watch over a graveyard on this night, you will see apparitions of all who will be buried there in the coming year. On the light hearted side, girls would attempt to divine the identity of their future husbands. One custom was to lay a row of nuts on the embers of a fire, whispering the name of one's beloved. Popping was a good omen; silent consumotion by the fire was not.
25).... London: Publication of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, 1719.
..... The latest possible Easter occured in 1843. This will happen again in 2038.
26).... Audubon born, 1785. He toured Europe to raise subscriptions for this volumes of bird studies in 1826; the names of the kings of France and England headed his list.
..... Peppercorn Day in Bermuda. A rent of one peppercorn is collected for the use of an old building in St. George.
27).... The first raincoat was made by Francois Fresnau, an engineer in French Guiana who made an old overcoar waterproof by coating it with latex from rubber trees.
..... The first mention of umbrellas appeared in 1637, in a list of the belongings of Louis XIII. The list included: e;even sunshades in various colors made of taffeta; three umbrellas of oiled cloth trimmed underneath with gold and silver lace.
Until late in the 18th century, umbrellas were considered feminine, and men were ridiculed for carrying the. They were also expensive and were often rented out by coffeehouses or churches.
28).... Mutiny on the Bounty, 1789.
..... In ancient Rome, the first day of the weeklong Festival of the Flora.
..... Both eggs and seeds for planting can be tested by the same method; a good seed or a good egg sinks to the bottom of the pan of water. Those that float should be discarded.
29).... The zipper is patented, 1913.
..... The nightingale is preeminently the bird of April. They sing most strongly in this month, as they have not yet become distracted by the choresof rearing a family. Sir John Sinclair hoped to establish nightingales in his native Scotland. He purchased as many eggs as he could for a shilling a piece and had them mailed to Scotland, where his deputies palced them in preselected robins nests. The birds hatched and, as fall approached, migrated. However, they did not return as Sir John had hoped, and were seen again.
30).... Walpurgis Night. Bonfires to ward off evil spirits were lit all over Germany and Scandinavia starting in pre-Christian times.
********** May **********
1)..... MayDay is traditionally the last of the series of rites celebrating the arrival of spring. Inmedieval England it was customary to "go a-Maying", fetching hawthorn blossoms and bedecking the houses. The prettiest girl was crowned Queenof May and a tall pole was set up and hung wild flowers. Even the royalty joined in these festivities. These charming celebrations of nature have not, infortunately, survived theindustrial age. The only May Day custom still widely observed is that practiced by young girls who wash their faces with the first dew of the morning to ensure a lovely complexion.
..... In Sweden, a sham battle is held on May Day between boys representing Winter and Summer -- Summer always win.
..... There was a May Day poetry competition in Provence, with flowers made of gold and silver awarded to the champions. The contest was financed by a bequest of a lady of rank in 1540 and the tradition survived until the Revolution.
..... In is an old American May Day custom, which still exists in some places, for children to make paper baskets, fill them with candies and wildflowers, and hang them on th door of a special friend.
.....May Day is Labor Day inmany parts of Europe.
2)..... Ash and hickory wood for barrels and hoops are at their best if they are cut in May, when they contain their highest perdetnage of oil. Wood cut in May is good for making tool handles, too.
3)..... Machiavelli was born, 1469.
..... In 1810, Lord Byron swims the Hellespont, in Turkey, in one hour and 10 minutes.
..... A belief: The stroking of a basil plant, whcih scents the hand, is also helpful to the plant and keeps it alive.
4)..... St. Florian's Day. The aptron saint of blacksmiths and firemen. This is a day to take fire prevention measures.
5)..... Near North Bend, Ohio, in 1865, the first train robbery in the United States took place.
..... The ancients called all the sprouts of young vegetables "asparagus", but the name is reserved now for the vegetable that begins to be available in early spring.
..... May is the time to eat dandelion greens -- later on they are tough.
6)..... Paris Exposition, 1900; opening day, 500,000 visitors.
7)..... Robert Browning born, 1812.
..... Beethoven, already deaf, conducts the first performance of his Ninth Symphony, in 1823, in Vienna.
8)..... By tradition, the daya the storks return to Ribe, Denmark, where they nest on the roof of the houses.
9)..... When the bridge at Niagara Falls was built, kites were used to carry cables across the river.
..... South German farmes sometimes like to feed cattle black bread spread wiht early morning dew.
..... Cows in pasture on fresh May grass. Saxons called May Thrimilce because they could milk their cows three times each day instead of twice.
11).... The second Sunday in May is Mother's Day in the United States. It was proposed by Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia in 1907 -- no one in Congress dared to vote against the idea.
..... The first official Mother's Day in the United States, 1914.
13).... In Germany, one occasionally hears people speak of having "heartworm". An old Bavarian manuscript says that this is a worm "which bites at peoples heart"; it was supposed to have little horns like deers antlers.
15).... Lyman Frank Baum, the author of the Wizard of Oz books, born, 1856.
..... In England, people decorate their wells in Ascension Day with flowered trellies. The water is thanked and blessed.
..... In ancient Rome, the festival of the Fontanalia was held at this time, to honor the spirits of Springs, streams and fountains.
17).... In the middle ages, manuscript books were so precious that one abbot gae an entire vineyard in exchange for a single missal.
18).... Before the 19th century, many Germans refused to eat potatoes. American born Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) intoduced a Rumford soup -- made mostly of potatoes -- which reversed this resistance to the extent that potatoes became a favorite in Bavaria.
..... Early New England believed that eating potatoes could shorten your life.
..... Mounts for the U.S. Army's camel corps arrive at the corps base in Texas, 1856.
19).... Napoleon establishes the Legion d'Honneur, 1802.
22).... Sir Arthur Conan Doyle born , 1859.
..... In the 14th century, under Bavarian law, women were given the right to duel men to settle disputes.
24).... The sun enters the third Zodiac sign f the year, Gemini.
..... Birth of Queen Victoria, 1819; celebrated as Empire Day.
..... In 1844 F.B. Morse inaugurates the first telegraph line in America with the messae "What hath God wrought!" transmitted between Washington D.C. and Baltimore.
25).... At Haarlem, Holland, there is a flower festival that begins with a dramatic midnight display; Flower sellers arranged their wares in the town square in the dark; at midnight, church bells peal, lights go on and the festival begins.
26).... At Dunmow, Essex, the Flitch of Bacon Trial has been held on this day sicne the 13th century. To earn the flitch of bacon, a couple must convice a jury of six maidens and six bachelors that they have been married for one year and one day without quarreling. The first winners were a sea captain and his wife who had'nt seen each other since their wedding day. In 1841 the rpize was offered to Victoria and Albert, who graciously declined it.
28).... A Munich ordinance prohibited the wearing of caps pulled down over the face since, as it noted, "robbers, burglers and poachers usually wear such hats to hide their faces" 1650.
29).... In England, this is known as Royal Oak Day or Oak Apple Day. If schoolboys don't wear an oak leaf in their buttonholes or hats, other boys can flog them with nettles. This goes back to the restoration of Charles II tot he British throne; he successfully hid from his enemies in an oak tree after the Battle of Worcester in 1651.
30).... First Memorail Day in the United States, 1868.
..... Day of St. Joan of Arc, Partron saint of France.
31).... Walt Whiteman born, 1819.
(Source: The Illuminated Book Of Days by Kay and Marshall Lee)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 1:07 AM
| Tuesday, December 13, 2005
| This coming Holiday....An OFFICE PARTY ETIQUETTE ADVISE
|What you should ---- and should'nt --- do at your company's gathering.
Office holiday parties are like blind date. Wear the wrong shirt, tell the wrong jor or drink one too many martinis and your potentially happy future is over before it began.
Each year amid the jovial flow of cocktail franks, gin-and-toics and choruses of "Fill Me Up, Buttercup", someone becomes folklore, forest labeled as the guy who thought it would be funny to teach the boss' wife to dance the Macarena.
The delicate task of navigating this half social, half professional occasion leaves many employees wishing they could simply stay home.
But according to executive coach Marjori Brody, the office holiday party is an ideal opportunity to raise your profile at work in a positive way andmake connections that can help your career.
"Most people think it's a party, and etiher they don't want to go or they'll go an just eat and drink with their friends. Both of theose are mistakes," Broday says. "It's a chance to be talking to people you don't normally speak to and a good opportunity to create an impression".
But how do you make the most of the opportunity without seeming opportunistic? And how do you participate in the party without partying too hard?
Image consultant Colleen Abrie says it begins with the proper wardrobe.
"You've gor three seconds or less tomake a first impression and about two years to change that if it does'nt go well," she says. "What do you want people to remember about you the next day, the next week?"
It's safest to dress conservatively, but it's also important to know your industry's culture: The same outfit that might be provocative at an investment firm could seem tame at a party for a record label.
Once you look the part, it's time to tackle the event itself. Before the party, find out a bit about your boss' supervisors. Perhapds one shares your love of the Boston Red Sox and another has four kids, just like you.
Introduce yourself and mention what you've got in common, but keep things brief.
"You're looking for something in common to show you're interested in building relationships and going to step above." Brody says. You're also emphasizing that you're a well-rounded person with interest other than work.
Brody advises ending a chat by creating an opportunity to further the connections. "You can say, "This has really been enjoyable. Let me stop by your office with something I'd like to give you".
Then follow up days later with some information or an e-mail like a helpful way to start a conversation, but experts say to avoit it.
Alcohol may seem like a helpful way to start a conversation, but experts say to avoid it.
Two alcoholic drinks for the evening, alternated with soft drinks or water, is probably a safe rule. An even vetter bet is to skip it entirely.
If you do drink alcohol, the experts say, be sure to eat too.
Another way to get involved in a positive way is to circulate in the crowd and introduce your acquantances to one another.
And as you leave, be sure to say thank you to your hosts, just as you would at someone's home. It's a subtle way of making sure your supervisors know you were there.
A CHEAT SHEET FOR THE BIG EVENT
What to wear.
It's best to dress conservatively at an office party, experts say. But if you long to make a fashion statement, try doing it with jewelry, accessories or hairstyle. For women, dangling earrings and strappy high heels add a fetive toudh to a basic black. For men, a bold shirt can spice up a traditional shirt.
What to say
Many people freeze up at the thought of chatting with their bosses at a party. Image consultant Marlon Gellatly advises shy clients to ask others about themselves and have a few questions ready. "Something as simple as,'What keeps you busy when you're away from work?'opens people up to a small talk". she says.
What to drink
The last thing you want to do at an office party is get drunk and embarrass yourself. A good rule of thumb is to have two alcoholic drinks and call it quits. Or don't drink at all. "You don't have to feel compelled to drink anything" executive coach Marjorie Brody says. "You can carry glass of ginger ale or Sprite around."
What to do
What about the person who wakes up with the after party realization that they've made a mistake? If it was minor, it's probably best not todraw attention ot it. But really blatnat mistakes, such as drunken behavior, do require an apology to anyone directly offended.
(from the Associated Press)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 1:24 AM
| Monday, December 12, 2005
| CAN YOU RELATE TO THIS?
|1975: LONG HAIR
2005: LONGING FOR HAIR
1975: ACID ROCK
2005: ACID REFLUX
1975: MOVING TO CALIFORNIA, BECAUSE IT'S COOL.
2005: MOVING TO ARIZONA, BECAUSE IT'S WARM.
1975: TRYING TO LOOK LIKE MARLON BRANDO OR LIZ TAYLOR.
2005: TRYING N O T TO LOOK LIKE MARLON BRANDO OR LIZ TAYLOR.
1975: SEEDS AND STEMS
1975: HOPING FOR A BMW
2005: HOPING FOR A BMW
1975: GOING TO A NEW HIP JOINT
2005: RECEIVING A NEW HIP JOINT
1975: ROLLING STONES
2005: KIDNEY STONES
1975: BEING CALLED INTO THE PRINCIPAL'S OFFICE.
2005: CALLING THE PRINCIPAL'S OFFICE.
1975: SCREW THE SYSTEM
2005: UPGRADE THE SYSTEM
1975: PARENTS BEGGING YOU TO GET YOUR HAIR CUT.
2005: CHILDREN BEGGING YOU TO GET THEIR HEADS SHAVED.
1975: PASSING THE DRIVER'S TEST
2005: PASSING THE VISION TEST
(EMAILED BY A FRIEND WHO WORKS IN A NURSING HOME)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:45 AM
| OB LA DI....OB LA DA...LIFE GOES ON...
|.....Just in case you were'nt feeling too old today, this will certainly change things.....
*** The people who are starting college this fall across the nation were born in 1987.
..... They are too young to remember the first space shuttle blowing up on the lift off....
..... Their lifetime has always included AIDS.
..... Bottle caps have always been screw off and plastic.....
..... The CD was introduced the year they were born.....
..... They have always had an answering machine.
They have always had cable.....
..... Jay Leno has always been on the Tonight Show.....
..... Popcorn has always been cooked in the microwave.....
..... They never took a swim and thought about jaws.....
..... They can't imagine what hard contact lenses are.....
..... They don't know who Mork was or where he was from.....
.....They never heard:
"Where's the Beef?"
"I'd walk a mile for a Camel" or,
"de plane, Boss, de plane".
..... They don't care who shot J.R.
they have no idea who J.R. even is.....
..... McDonald's never came in a styrofoam containers.....
..... They dont have a clue how to use a typewriter.....
OB LA DI....OB LA DA...LIFE GOES ON!!!
(emailed by a friend who works in a nursing home)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:27 AM
| Saturday, December 10, 2005
| FENDING OFF COLDS AND FLU
|VIRUSES AND GERMS! They are everywhere! But that does'nt mean you have to give them a comfy place to make camp.Even when exposed to the nasty bacteria and viruses that cause most common maladies, strong, clean, energized bodies simply don't make very good hosts, and that's why they don't get sick as easily as stressed, toxic, tired bodies.
A vital and vibrant immune system can make things downright unpleasant for invading germs. Thus, regardless of what the cough-syrup, cold medicine and disinfectant spray ads may imply, strengthening your own immune system is by far the best way to prevent colds and flu.
HERE ARE A FEW EXTRA TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU COLD AND FLU-FREE THIS WINTER:
** Although your skin is an excellent first line of defense against germs, you can help by washing your hands frequenstly thorughout the day. Many of the most common andmost dangerous infections are spread through germs on the hands.(Note: Don't assume "antibacterial" soaps are more effective. If overused, they can weaken your body's pH-balanced acid mantle and kill off its healthy bacteria, thus leaving you more vulnerable. The presence of antibacterial soaps in the water supply may also contribute to the development of "superbugs').
** Minimize your exposure to people who are ill, for your sake and theirs.
** Even a slightly stuffy nose can result in an upp respiratory infections. Help keep sinuses clear with an herbal facial steam. Use mint, chamomile, rosemary, or lemon verbena, and breathe in the herbal mist. Or try a nete pot to rinse your nasal passages.
** Increase your intake of fluids with water, tea or soups.
** Avoid excess sugar, alcohol and chemicals in your diet.
** In addition to your basic multivitamin,take additional
vitamin C, at least 1,000 mg once or twice a day.
** Herbals and immune supporters that may protect you from colds and flu include echinacea, astragalus, Siberian ginseng, garlic, coensyme Q10 and DMG (dimethylglycine).
** Although, I dont suggest flu shots for healthy people, they may be necessary for the elderly, for people with chronic illness or asthma, or for those who have been prone to the flu in previous years or who cannot risk getting the flu for other reasons.
(Source: EXPERIENCE LIFE MAG/ by Dr. Elson M. Haas, MD)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:01 AM
| Friday, December 09, 2005
| BEETHOVEN PIECE SOLD FOR US$1.7 MILLION
|LONDON -- A working manuscript of Ludwig van Beethoven's "Groose Fuge" sold for US$1.72 million to an anonymous buyer, Sotheby's auctioneers said.
Sotheby's desctined the manuscript, discovered in a Pennsylvania sminary library, as "an astounding and important discovery" and possibly themost substantial manuscript of a Beethovern work to come up for sale in more than a century.
The buyer, who bid by telephone, paid US$1.95 million, including the buyer's permission, Sotheby's said. It declined to say where the buyer was based.
"The manuscript was only known for a brief description in a catalogue in 1890 and it has never before been seen or described by Beethoven scholars", said Stephen Roe, head of Sotheby's manuscript department.
"It's rediscovery will allow a complete reassessment of this extraordinary music."
The 80-page manuscript is a piano duet version (opus 134) of the last movement of Beethoven's string quartet in B flat (opus 130), which was first performed in 1826, a year before his death.
The "Grosse Fuge" composed as part of commission from Prince Nikolay Golitsin of St. Petersburg., was originally published as the finale of the string quartet.
Because players found the manuscript so difficult, the publisher asked for a simple version, and the "Grosse Fuge" was then puboished separately (opus 133).
The piano manuscript was rediscovered earlier this year by librarian Heather Carbo at the Palmer Theological Seminary in Wunnewood, Pa., just outside Philadephias' city limits.
The manuscript is full of clues to Beethovens' composition process. It is written in brown and black ink, sometimes over pencil and includes later annotations in pencil and red crayon. There is evidence of deltions, corrections, deep erasures, smudged alterations, and several pages pasted over the original.
"The extent of Beethovens' working and reworking on the manuscript suggests that the composer accorded it great significance and leads to the suggestion that he may have given the four hand version equal standing with the better known quartet version," Sotheby's catalogue said.
'Very important discobery'
University of Pennsylvania musicologist Jeffrey Kallberg, who authenthicated the manuscript, said it was in pristine condition because it has not been touched or moved for so many decades.
"It's a very important discovery", he said. "This was a controversial and not understood work because it was so ahead of its time. It sounds like it was written by a dossonant 20th century composer."
The manuscript was last mentioned in an 1890 auction catalog from Berlin. The buyer is not documented, but seminary officials believe it was industrialist and composer William Howard Doane.
(Source: Associated Press)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 11:34 PM